Reasons Why Humankind Will Never be Able to Conquer Space.

In a previous blog post, I outlined ideas about the possibility that we are just part of one big computer simulation. I am equally intrigued by theories of the human colonialization of the universe.

I am a biologist by training, and throughout my scientific career I was always interested in the effects of radioactivity on the human body; as a high school student I wrote a paper on this topic, and during my time in research I have worked with radioactivity in many shapes and forms. Towards the end of my career in science, I was a radioactivity safety officer and went through training at a nuclear research institute. This might perhaps be an idea for an additional post; although this topic is already touched on in my novels.

This is one angle worthwhile looking at when considering the colonization of space by humans. No doubt humans can survive in space, but cosmic radiation has an overwhelming effect on space colonization. Luke Skywalker doesn’t seem to be affected by it, but one wonders how he achieves that

The Earth’s atmosphere protects the creatures living on its surface; it blocks most of the radiation from outer space. This is visualized impressively by the Northern Light. In fact, all creatures on earth, humans included, have evolved within a relatively narrow and well-defined window of radiation.

On the one hand, all radiation is dangerous to organisms, but it also drives mutation, and thus evolution. Radiation always damages the biological system in the same manner: its energy causes the formation of oxygen radicals, which in turn attack the genetic material – the DNA. As a result, the DNA, the genetic code, “breaks”, and the cell will die. Or the DNA is mutated, and the information it contains is altered, leading e.g. to cancer. This can affect the individual itself; or if the change happens in a sperm- or egg-cell (the germline), the next generations will suffer, or benefit, from his change.

Traveling by plane from New York to Paris translates to a radiation dose equivalent to a full chest X-ray. Astronauts who travel completely outside of the atmosphere get much higher doses. So high, that cosmic radiation is the limiting factor for the length of manned space flights. Pilots and astronauts risk cataracts, cancer, and other ailments; and radioactivity has an impact on the immune system which affects many biological processes.

Alas, most of the outer space happens to be completely free of any gas, any atmosphere. So, the radiation that permeates the universe ubiquitously is not filtered out. Any artificial shielding against radiation would be tremendously bulky and heavy and doesn’t seem to be a realistic option, as the spacecraft would need to be massive in size and weight. Colonists living on the moon would be forced to live underground, beneath a thick layer of rock.

The distances to travel are huge, which adds to the radiation exposure. The next star (except for the sun) is some 24 trillion miles away. Theoretically, it should be possible to create a spacecraft that could fly relatively close to the speed of light, but even then, the next stars would take hundreds of years to reach. Reaching an inhabitable planet may take much longer. During that time, the astronauts would collect many mutations in their cells and in their germline. It is very unlikely that they would survive, or create viable offspring.

Add to that the effects of weightlessness on the human skeleton and body… through evolution, the human body was optimized to survive on Earth, at a gravitation of 1g. Just like the amount of radiation that hits Earth each day, this exact level of gravitation is what defines us as humans. Actually, if we could travel back to the age of the dinosaurs, there is a chance that we wouldn’t be able to survive on our own planet for more than a few minutes, due to the higher concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen that existed at that time. Compare this to the extreme hostility of outer space or a distant “Earth-like” planet.

Humanity’s chance to conquer space indirectly is bigger. Self-replicating, intelligent, and evolving robots and machines, created by humans, would not need oxygen to breathe, they would be practically immune to the effects of radiation. This is underscored by the space probes that are still sending valuable information, after dozens of years, from the rim of the solar system.

Likewise, the chance that any extra-terrestrial visitor to Earth would be an organic organism is slim. Probably, such a visitor would either be a very primitive, highly adaptable lifeform or, much more likely, a robot or a machine. I address this in my 2022 novel REBOUND.

Still, technology progresses. Revolutionary new ways to travel the vast distances of space could be discovered, or intracellular DNA repair mechanisms might be developed, to „immunize“ man against radiation, These are at the moment not on the horizon, but who knows? Until that time, humanity is by and large confined to our single, beautiful home: Earth, and we should focus on protecting this place as well as we can.

The Sun, our Lonely Star

Find out more about the exploration of space in my books.

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Originally posted 2019-03-09 21:08:00.

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